Why Create Photographs with the Snow – Part 1
You like to photograph landscapes or animals during the winter.
For you it certainly evokes silence, emptiness. Its immaculate whiteness also evokes purity.
But maybe snow also evokes you the suffering and death due to cold and frost that can be felt.
Snow is an extraordinary photographic element of suggestion and interpretation. It is a source of inexhaustible creativity.
But technically, it is not always good to photograph snowy scenes. In the same way the framing and the compositions are more complicated than it seems at first sight.
I will share with you how I approach this natural element in nature photography whether technically or artistically.
The first technical problem in photographing snowy scenes is the adjustment of the exposure.
The camera tends to under-expose the exposure of a scene when there is snow.
The first adjustment to make on your case is the exposure mode.
In general, matrix mode (or evaluative mode at Canon) gives good results. The camera calculates the exposure across the stage.
If you are photographing a tree or an animal with a dark tone in a snowy scene, you certainly want to keep details in the structures, the coat or the plumage. In this case, I advise you to work in spot mode. You measure the light on the animal or plant. You memorize it and you take the picture. The snow will appear very white and certainly overexposed, but the important thing is to keep the details of the main focus of the scene.
If you are shooting in auto mode (program mode) or semi-automatic mode (shutter priority or aperture priority), your camera will perform an exposure calculation by averaging the entire scene. The snow will appear gray.
Indeed, as the snow is very bright, the camera will want to underexpose the photograph to reduce the exposure to a neutral value. He performs his calculations on a mean gray value of 18%. It is for this reason that the snow will appear gray and not white as in reality. My advice is to offset the exposure in a positive way. You can start with +2/3, increment or down one or + 1.3 +1.7 2 or EV.
This acronym EV means exposure value.
EV is the unit of measurement the amount of light received by a sensor.
By positively composing your exposure, the snow will appear white. It's up to you to do some tests and check the result on the screen and with the histogram to determine the correct value.
If you are shooting in manual mode without using Auto ISO mode, I recommend overexposing the exposure with the previous method by increasing the sensitivity for a given aperture and speed.
If you are shooting in manual mode using Auto ISO mode, you only need to compensate your exposure positively for the scene. This is the equivalent of the semi-automatic mode.
I recommend that you check the histogram of your photos in the control panel. If your histogram is pasted on the right side is that your photo is overexposed. Some of the pixels in the photo too exposed. Your histogram should not be glued to the left or stuck to the right. With photos of snow, it will certainly be located to the right of the midpoint. This is perfectly normal.
To properly expose a snowy scene, simply overexpose the photo with positive compensation and control that most of the histogram is to the right of the midpoint.
My advice is that when shooting the snow is neither too gray nor too white. It is at the moment of development with the computer that you will set the tones you want.
I advise you to shoot in RAW mode because you can easily adjust the exposure during development. You can increase or decrease it a little. If you're shooting in JPEG, you can change the brightness of the photograph at the time of development but it's not the exposure. The results will be worse.
Manage White Balance
The second technical problem in photographing snowy scenes is that of the white balance setting.
Large, snow-covered expanses tend to absorb the color of ambient light. If the sky of your scene is very cloudy, the snow will appear with a bluish tint.
To calibrate my white balance, I use the ColorChecker system from Rite. It is a very practical system that comes in the form of a small slate that folds. There is a multitude of colored squares and a white slate. For all my landscape photos, I use this system not only to manage my colors but also to fix my white balance.
Sometimes in my photographs with the snow, I do not try to completely neutralize the bluish tint. Indeed, blue is a cold color. As part of the creation of an artistic photo, this reinforcement can be beneficial.
However, if you shoot in RAW mode, you can always adjust the white balance of your photos at the time of development. I remind you that a photo in RAW does not have a color space. It is at the moment of development that it is fixed. If you are shooting in JPEG, you will not be able to change the white balance at the time of development because the color space is fixed by the camera at the time of shooting. It can be either sRGB or RGB.
Set a Shutter Speed According to the Needs of the Scene
The third and last technical problem that can occur when shooting snowy scenes is the shutter speed when it snows.
To freeze falling snowflakes I recommend a speed at the moment 1/400 of a second. If they fall sharply, you can increase the speed to freeze them.
If you want to create an artistic photograph by creating a yarn for flakes, I recommend a low speed.
There are no fixed values for speed. It all depends on the effect you are looking for. I advise you to bracket your compositions and your effects at the time of shooting.
You will choose at the moment of the selection on the computer, the photos which suit you.
Manage Your Equipment in the Field
Who says snow, says cold! Who says cold, says problems with the cameras that it is with the batteries, the objectives.
Several problems appear if you want to shoot while it is very cold. This winter, we went to create photos for a collection in the north of the United States. Everyday temperatures were around -30 degrees Celsius.
With a camera that stays outside for two hours, the batteries wear out very quickly. With a battery, we usually make about 400 photos with our 45-megapixel sensor. In these difficult conditions, we arrived on average at 150 photos. When it is very cold, the batteries are discharged very quickly.
At each trip, I had 2 batteries in reserve that I put in a pocket with small heating bags.
The second problem that we often encounter is that the lenses engines get stuck. The auto focus does not work anymore. The only solution is to disengage in manual focus mode and focus with the ring available on the lens.
If it snows, I advise you to put the hood of your lens. Not only does it enhance the contrasts of your photos, but it's also a protection when the snow falls.
Finally, here is another tip that I use when temperature differences are important.
If you photograph nature scenes for several hours and decide to come back to a warm place like a car, I advise you to put your camera in a waterproof plastic bag to avoid condensation. Leave the camera for several minutes before removing it from the bag.
If you let the condensation settle on your camera body or your lens, you will have tiny droplets of water that will form. They will introduce themselves everywhere to the risk of damaging the electronics of your equipment. The very high-end cameras are tropicalized, but the entry-level ones are not. But anyway, I never take a chance. When I enter a heated cabin, I put my camera in waterproof bags for 40 to 60 minutes.
Why Photograph Scenes with Snow
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