For this collection of fine art prints in my "Lights and Colors" style and in my "Around the World" theme, I chose a very little-known region of Nevada: "Valley of Fire".
Valley of Fire is a little piece of paradise located in the state of Nevada in the United States.
Each year, I always take two or three days to recharge my batteries in this small mineral setting lost in the Mojave Desert.
Whenever I go to "Valley of Fire", I always feel the same excitement. Indeed, besides going to take photos in the field, I always give myself a little pleasure.
There is only one road that leads to Valley of Fire. It winds through a rocky desert which is not really interesting for a photographer. The landscapes are studded with a few trees, a few yuccas and a few cacti. The colors are rather dull.
My little pleasure is to wait for the exit of a hairpin bend located about a kilometer (0.62 mile) from "Valley of Fire". Just before coming out of the bend, I stop to climb on a small butte which offers me a magnificent vision on this red and orange mineral landscape. It is just a little moment of incomparable ecstasy.
Each time, I feel the same surprise and the same joy in front of this mineral spectacle. How this little sandstone paradise with such warm colors could have emerged in this desert. It is like a lantern that sparkles in this desert where there is no color, where everything is dull. It is an absolutely amazing feeling. Every year, it's always the same shock, the same enthusiasm.
"Valley of Fire" is made up entirely of rocks and a little sand. When I walk around looking for a good point of view, I only hear the silence. Nothing resonates.
As far as the eye can see, these are just rocks, where some shrubs live. "Valley of Fire" is one of those places in the world where I understand what the words calm, solitude, tranquility, serenity mean.
When I walk in this totally preserved nature because very little frequented, I feel the same energy as the Pink Granite Coast in the north of Brittany in France. It is like if the rocks radiate positive energizing waves. I take a real makeover. I completely regenerate myself.
In this collection of color fine art prints, I wanted to show the beauty, the fullness that one can feel in such places. The shapes, the colors, the skies are unique. The feeling of being at the beginning of the creation of the earth is palpable.
I created this collection in a panoramic format with a 3: 1 ratio. The definition of each of the photographs reaches 150 mega pixels. The prints can be very large.
Nature is absolutely extraordinary for those who know how to watch it and appreciate the shows she offers us.
Natural land landscapes are often invitations to introspection. Through contemplation, they allow us to find answers to our existential questions.
Personally, when I contemplate them, I always try to disconnect from my daily life and all my thoughts related to my work. I focus on what I see, what I feel. I let my imagination wander. I am always trying to find a symbolic representation of what I am looking at.
During one of my many trips to the northern part of the Canyonlands, Island in the Sky, in the state of Utah in the United States, I left my photo equipment in the car. I had decided for once to let me go and understand why I loved coming to this region so much.
It was 8 a.m. The morning was exceptional. The light conditions were perfect. However, I forced myself not to take photographs of landscapes. I was alone. No noise was noticeable. I let myself go.
I contemplated the large canyons dug by the Colorado and the Green River which were 1800 meters below.
My imagination wandered. I imagined the millions of years it had taken to transform these landscapes. Time passing slowly. The time that transforms, changes our lives, sculpts landscapes. The time that we lack in our modern societies. We reach a goal. We are already looking for a next goal to reach. We are always chasing something. Time is the rarest and most precious commodity we have. I wonder why we are not more aware of it. Perhaps because time is difficult to quantify. Maybe we forget that our lives are short. Maybe we are too materialistic.
I was lost in my thoughts when suddenly I had a very curious idea. I had in front of me huge creatures that looked like dinosaurs and that walked leaving large footprints. I had gone back over 65 million years ago.
I had before me the imprints of time.
Each of them has a particular form, a hidden meaning that we have to try to discover. These footprints are just there to tell us that we must always work to create solid foundations that will be used to build what is called humanity.
And if all these magnificent landscapes were only there to remind us of the purpose of our existence: to learn and understand in order to be happy and to give happiness to others.
I hope you will feel the same emotions as I do when viewing these black and white fine art prints. They are dedicated to the photography of landscapes in black and white. But close your eyes and go to the landscapes already. What do you see ?
In this collection of black and white nature art prints, I have chosen tree bark as the theme.
I did not photograph any bark from any tree. It would be much too easy. The associated symbolism would have little interest.
I chose very old trees like these Fremont Cottonwood at Capitol Reef in the state of Utah. They were planted in 1880. Their bark is rough, hard.
Symbolically, the bark represents protection because it protects the tree from bad weather, from outside attacks.
It also represents regeneration. When a piece of bark disappears, it is an injury to the tree. But he will heal because it will rebuild.
The bark is also the material on which some engrave messages or symbols. They are certain that these scriptures will last through time. When they come back 20 or 30 years after the inscriptions are engraved, they will find these messages and will remember. The bark is in some cases the guarantor of a personal memory.
I often compare these gnarled and tortured barks to the wrinkles of the elderly. These barks symbolize experience, knowledge, the years that pass inexorably.
The intertwined and sinuous lines of these barks of old trees are the wrinkles of time. The older the tree, the more marked these wrinkles. When I caress them or touch them with my fingertips, I always feel like the tree is giving me vital energy. I feel like he is trying to tell me something he saw or tell me what I do not know about me yet. I have always found that interacting with trees, especially the oldest among them, had something very concrete.
I hope that these black and white fine art prints will also make you feel all this energy so close to us and yet so active.
This photograph of a waterbuck in Kenya is well for a black and white photo.
Why Creating Animal Photographs in Black and White ?
Creating animal photos in black and white has many advantages. I will list some of them for you. These are the most important. I invite you to memorize them to use when you are in the field
Black and white allows you to create unique photos that convey emotions that cannot be found in color. This technique evokes more the mystery, the interrogation.
As reality is always in color, black and white becomes an interpretation of what you see. It is an artistic form. As the color is removed, the viewer is forced to add his own emotions to the photographs.
Using color in photography is like writing a novel. You describe each element, each detail precisely.
Black and white is like poetry : its strength does not come from what it is said but from everything that is suggested.
In black and white, the impact of wildlife photos is increased tenfold. The animal truly becomes the master of the game. The black and white technique places animal at the center of all the attention of the viewer: we only see him.
On the contrary, color is very distracting for a viewer. Natural environments like foliage or blue skies will catch his look. They have more saturated and more intense colors than the ones of the animal. In the absence of color, look will be attracted to the essential: the animal.
Black and white is a perception and an interpretation of reality. On the contrary, the color is adapted to the descriptive scenes.
As it is an interpretation of what you see, you can more easily express your emotions, send messages. Of course, black and white can be descriptive. Art photography in general may be descriptive. You can show exceptional animal behavior. But you must always have a good reason. You must justify it with your photographic vision.
Black and white makes it possible to highlight the animal which is the main photographic element. The space around him is less important.
Black and white emphasizes details and light. This is what you are looking to do in wildlife photography. Do not forget that in black and white you must favor lines, shapes, textures and contrasts.
Black and white is timeless. It is always difficult to date a black and white photograph unless external elements suggest the time. Color is often linked to a time or an era.
It is always possible to create black and white photos throughout the day even if the sun is at its zenith. For the best color, the beginning of the morning or the end of the day unless the skies are covered. Color does not like highlights.
It is always possible to create black and white photos throughout the day even if the sun is at its zenith. For the best color, the beginning of the morning or the end of the day unless the skies are covered. Color does not like highlights.
The cloudy and dark skies can produce beautiful black and white photos. These atmospheres enhance the textures and details of the plumage or coat.
This is not the case in color because you need a grazing light to highlight these elements.
Today most cameras allow you to view black and white photos either before shooting or after. All it takes is a simple setting.
Certainly, the result is not up to what you will get with your photo on the computer, but you will have an excellent idea of the final result. Do not forget to check if you have that feature when you buy a new camera body.
How Creating Wildlife Photographs in Black and White?
Whether in the field or in post-production, you should always think in black and white. I will give you a small, non-exhaustive list of tips for getting the most out of creative black and white wildlife photography.
Photographing in RAW mode. In the early post processing, you will always accurately adjust the white balance and the exposure of your images. If your photo is in JPEG format, you will always adjust on these two parameters, but you will not have the precision you have in RAW format.
The RAW format is a format which exploits all the possibilities of your camera's sensor. JPEG is a compressed format. He loses details.
The RAW format will always give more depth to your wildlife photographs.
You always must have a plan before your photo project or your photo session. You must know what you want to do and what you are going to do. Never forget that if you do not know where you want to go, you will have no chance of getting there. Mental preparation is essential.
Your compositions should be as simple as possible. They must highlight the animal. Remember that black and white is made to showcase the subjects (main photographic elements). It is a technique that does not distract the eyes. I advise you to use in addition the bokeh technique which will allow you to isolate the main subject even more from the background.
When possible, use either the high key or low-key technique to create special atmospheres and mood.
The two techniques can be used when shooting by overexposing the highlights for the high key and under-exposing low lights for low-key.
The development on your computer will allow to accentuate each of the two effects. The high key and the low-key photographic are processes which intervene throughout all the creation of an animal photograph in black and white.
When choosing ay decor to create a wildlife photographs in black and white, use green background and put the wild animal in the good light.
During the post-processing, you will lower the brightness of the green layer: the background will become dark . This is one of the techniques I use for the low-key. Then, you have to bring out details in the dark areas to give depth to your photographs
To Continue Next Friday. Do not forget to come back.
Why and How: Creating Wildlife Photographs in Black and White – Part 1
Have you ever wanted to create wildlife photographs that have impact and that convey real emotions? Have you ever wanted to go beyond the simple descriptive photo of an animal in the wild?
In this article I propose some tips, recipes for creating meaningful black and white photos.
If you are already using this creative technique, the ideas developed in this article will give you supplements.
If you are not a fan of black and white, you will discover an extraordinary universe without limit of creativity.
Young walia ibex photographed in black and white in Ethiopia.
The Little Story of This Article
My passion for the technique of black and white photography started with landscape photography. As I live in the United States, I often travel the mineral landscapes of Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, California and Nevada.
Showing in black and white the details, the shapes, the structures were quite easy and natural. This is how I developed my expertise in black and white.
In the fall of 2013, I decided to spend, like every year, three weeks to photograph the rut of the deer in France.
During this fall, summer had to play extra time. It was installed a little more permanently than in previous years. At the end of September, the foliage, the ferns were still a beautiful bright color. I had exceptional permission to take my photos on the Hennessy domain in Charente-Maritime.
As hunting was organized on specific dates, I could move freely and without fear of being mistaken for a wild animal.
I had spotted a very large clearing surrounded by hardwoods, which is quite rare in the region. The decor was perfect.
After several waiting sessions, I had the chance to photograph a big lonely re deer stag that came to bugle. Well hidden in my blind I made a magnificent series. He stayed more than three hours to bugle, graze and sleep. It was unexpected .
When I decided to develop the photos, I naturally chose the color.
The developed photos were very interesting, well-constructed, with magnificent decor and a beautiful light. But they were all classic. I had already seen them hundreds of times.
The series of six photos was spread out in front of me. I was satisfied but I could not feel the emotions generated by the power and the beauty of the animal. I returned to illustrative photography which I had abandoned three years ago.
It was then that I decided to convert them to black and white. I realized that I could darken the green color of the leaves in the background to enhance the shape of the animal.
I could easily highlight the dark orange coat of the deer stag by overexposing it a little more and create a better contrast.
The dodge and burn that I applied to the eyes allowed me to accentuate a fierce, wild and determined glance.
By applying a dark and gradual vignetting around the deer stag, I accentuated the contrasts even more. The red deer was really highlighted.
I applied the same development to the collection of six photos. I had in front of me a set of coherent and consistent pictures. The photos were creative, different and unique. I had finally been able to photograph the bugle of the deer as I wanted. I finally felt the emotions I had had in the field. The wild beauty and the natural power of the animal were highlighted.
The technique of black and white had allowed me to create interesting pictures, different which had sense. It was my real beginnings in black and white wildlife photography. The years that followed proved to me that I had made the right choice and that I had found a way to express myself in wildlife photography. These are the elements that I will explain in the rest of the article.
The Qualities to Develop to Be a Wildlife Photographer
Before giving you tips for creating animal photos in black and white, it seems very important to me to list some qualities necessary to make good photos of wild animals in the field.
First of all, you must have a real passion for wildlife and its diversity. Never forget that you are taking good pictures of what you know well. Be curious: read books on the species that inspire you. Watch all the animal reports concerning the fields which interest you. The more you know about behaviors and animal habits, the better your photographic creations will be.
Never forget that a wild animal is unpredictable. Even if you are well prepared; you have learned as much as you can about a species, you will always have surprises. Nothing will ever be like you would have expected. A wild animal always reacts according to its primary instincts which are surviving, reproducing and eating. Try to anticipate the more you can.
Be a good observer. We live in cities, villages in which our collective life is organized according to our needs as human beings. Our senses have been developed in this urban and city environment.
In nature everything is different. You must relearn to observe the signs of wildlife. The smells, the direction of the wind, the morning dew, the shape of the clouds, a bird's cry are some signs that can provide precious indications of what is going to happen.
Know how to improvise. You must be ready to face the unpredictable once on the ground, but you must also know how to improvise.
For example, knowing how to create a blind in the field with leaves, a few branches, is an elementary act to realize photos of red deer or bear in Europe. Improvisation management can be learned. You should always train even if you find yourself in a situation you are mastering.
Always ask about the weather. Knowledge of the weather is a real asset for you. If it is raining you must have the clothes and the blind accordingly. The knowledge of the wind direction is essential. Wild animals always walk facing the wind to detect predators or a danger. Poor knowledge of weather conditions can lead to a disastrous photo session once in the field.
Respect nature and wild animals. In my opinion these are the two essential qualities of a good wildlife photographer. The more you respect nature and the animals you photograph, the more likely you are to blend in with the surroundings and become part of the environment around you.
The more you show respect, the more you will get to know nature and blend in with the landscapes. The better your animal photos will be. Never disturb an animal to take a photo. Indeed, the frightened or constrained look of a wild animal never produces a good photo. More the attitude is natural more the picture is beautiful.
Be patient. With underwater photography, wildlife photography is one of the most difficult photographic fields to master. To create interesting pictures time is not measured in days, weeks or months. It is measured in years.
Knowing how to take sharp, well-composed and well-framed photos takes just a few days. But creating meaningful animal photos requires a great deal of self-knowledge, a lot of humility and patience.
Art photography is a way for me to express emotions, to transmit messages.
It also allows me to create aesthetic photographic works.
For this collection, I chose the form of the message.
One of my favorite themes in artistic photographic expression is to symbolically show the relationships between human beings.
It is very difficult for me to understand why how so many people, despite all the means of communication at their disposal, despite technological progress, are becoming more and more distant from each other.
I do not understand why more and more people feel alone in a world that is becoming more and more populated.
We have at our disposal, speech, writing, singing, art, signs to express ourselves. However, I feel like we do not communicate enough with each other. I have the impression that sincere and frank exchanges have disappeared in favor of hushed exchanges, with hidden meanings. The truth has almost disappeared from verbal exchanges.
How many times have we chosen not to express ourselves on a subject or to say clearly what we thought? I am sure you have already felt this frustration.
In this collection that I have called "Lonely", the stakes planted in an ancient pasture covered by water represent human beings.
Some fine art prints show stakes linked together with barbed wire. It symbolizes the link that can exist between people. The tips of the barbed wire can bite. This bite can be very painful. Thus, I symbolize difficult, tense, dangerous and unhealthy relationships that can exist between human beings. I wanted to show that people can feel totally lonely even if there is a connection with someone else.
For some of the artistic photographs, I have chosen not to use barbed wire. This time, the stakes are isolated. To be alone is to be surrounded by other people but not to communicate. Everyone lives in his own bubble, in his world.
I chose black and white and high key as creative techniques to make the stakes as visible as possible. Each of them clearly evokes the standing position of a human being. No genre is mentioned. Being alone affects both women and men.
Some stakes are valiant and taller than the others. Being alone concerns all ages from the youngest to the oldest among us. No one is spared.
This collection is a distress call: could not we relearn how to use words to say things simply, with frankness and sincerity? I think it is time that we get to know each other better so that we can improve and get a little better.
Time has always been a very important factor in my life. I have always been fascinated by this notion that everyone talks about, but which is difficult to define.
In my vocabulary, I have finally retained this marvelous definition of historical time. I have broken it into three periods:
The past indicates that which cannot be changed no matter what we do.
The future indicates that which can be changed if we take certain actions.
The present indicates the junction between our past and our future.
This definition of time is ultimately very simple to understand. It is also easy to apply in my work. Although this definition is limited, I have chosen to continue using it.
My whole life can be explained through the solid foundations which continue to be built each day. These foundations are the result of my experiences, my encounters with people, and the ideas and skills that I learn each day. These foundations, regardless of whether they were successful or not, have allowed me to evolve over time.
My goal has always been to become a better person by bringing comfort and well-being to others. In photography I have always aimed for excellence, even though I knew that perfection is nearly impossible to achieve. However, I still work towards it as best I can.
Time is therefore very important in my life, as well as yours. It is a commodity that you should not waste but use wisely to achieve the best version of yourself.
I have created many photographic projects to illustrate my way of understanding time. Symbolically, falls and waterfalls are a natural representation of passing time.
What better illustrates the passage of time than flowing water? As it is photographed, the water changes. It may become richer, warmer, cooler, it may completely change shape, or disappear. This is how I see life.
This collection of artistic photographs of the nature of waterfalls is depicted in shades of black and white. It is a photographic technique that I love to use for contemplative interpretations of nature. For me, watching a waterfall has a hypnotic effect. I can spend hours in contemplation and introspection.
I chose black and white because it allows you to focus on the essential element: water. I have created another collection, which is in color. It is more evocative of the atmospheres surrounding the waterfalls. This black and white collection is much more intimate and introspective. It allows you to focus on the essentials.
By viewing this collection, I hope that you will experience the same feelings of tranquility which I have encountered. I hope that your desire to understand where we come from and where we are going is increased. Is not our interest in discovery one of the most important things that can spark our actions in this world?
For this collection of fine art prints in my style "Lights and colors", I wanted to show how lights and colors can provoke energy, making you desire to begin a new stage in life.
The Simien Mountains in northern Ethiopia are a large mountainous area with a maximum altitude of up to 4,500 meters (14,700 feet). When I am creating photographs in this unique region, I devote myself to endemic Ethiopian species such as gelada, walia ibex or wolves.
The Simien Mountains are particularly cold when night falls. The animals hide to be safe from predators. They only come out when the first rays of the sun stream across the sky.
To make my artistic wildlife photographs, I often choose to camp so as to be as close as possible to the animals. My days are dictated by the sun. When it disappears on the horizon, I snuggle up in my sleeping bag to escape the intense cold. In the morning, I wake long before the first rays of sun warm the earth.
Each day, during the twilight, I ascend on the plateaus dominating the Ethiopian valleys to take pictures of landscapes. Once my equipment is in place, I wait for the breathtaking few minutes of sunrise.
It is an intense moment during which I tell myself that this day is a fresh beginning of a new life. In this region of the world where pollution is completely absent, where life is only punctuated by the search for food, I have the impression of seeing the world as it looked in the beginnings of time. I am not talking about the primary beginning of time itself, rather, the beginning when everything on earth fell into place to welcome humans onto this planet.
The light gradually revives the colors of the landscapes. As I am always on the heights, I dominate the mountains and valleys stretching for tens of kilometers. I experience fullness and calmness. With each emotion, I am in solitude. Few humans dare to arise so early in the morning, in a wild region where leopards and hyenas cry out in the blanketing darkness.
Each morning, I am rejuvenated, which reminds me that everything is possible. I can begin anew with the experience that I have acquired during all these years while seeking photographic excellence.
I wanted to share these moments of intense happiness that I experienced while watching life awaken from the heights of the Simien mountains. It is an experience that I wish for all those who want to enjoy life’s simplest and yet most powerful moments on earth.
Looking back, each day is simply the beginning of a new stage in our lives. We are different than who we were yesterday. We are different from who we will be tomorrow. We have gained experience. We become more dynamic with each new sensation or emotion. Our foundations have been strengthened. Why would we not want to escape into our wildest dreams?
For this collection of fine art prints in my style "shades of blacks and whites", I wanted to explore anthropomorphism with an animal species.
I chose the extraordinary geladas as the theme. Geladas are primates that are endemic to the region of the Ethiopian highlands.
For the creation of this collection of artistic black and white photographs, I decided to spend several weeks in the Simien mountains during the month of November.
It was my third trip to Ethiopia to photograph geladas. My goal was to photograph monkeys with the Simien mountains in the background to give depth to the scenes. During other trips, my backgrounds were always hindered by trees or rock walls.
Arriving in the mountains, I was fortunate enough to meet large groups of monkeys. I did not expect such a large population.
Unlike the geladas I had encountered during my first two trips to the south, these creatures living in the Simien mountains are easier to approach because they are less hunted by natives. They are less fearful of humans.
Often, I have been able to lie on the grass and wait for groups to come to me. Even though it is an impressive monkey with huge canines, the gelada is quite sociable. When I was surrounded by several animals, I remained still. When they started picking blades of grass for food, I captured shots.
My most beautiful meeting was certainly the one with a young two-day-old gelada who had almost no hair. He was constantly snuggling against his mother's chest. After two days, curiosity won out. He approached me to see what I was doing. I was then able to capture many interesting photos that were completely different than those I had taken previously.
Finally, I was not able to finish my original project of focusing on wide, unhindered backgrounds. The opportunity to capture images with wide views of the mountains never arose. I was so caught up in staying surrounded by monkeys that the days passed very quickly. Thus, the main subject of my project became anthropomorphism that is observed in the geladas.
I could observe and photograph tenderness, sweetness, melancholy, joy, anger, and curiosity. I will never know what these photographed expressions represent emotionally in these monkeys. But I am sure that they must match what we as humans might transmit with our attitudes and bodily expressions.
I chose black and white with overexposure of the highlights (this technique is called high key in photography) in order to clearly reveal the expressions of faces and bodies. The exaggeration of white allows me to accentuate the feeling of freedom that I experienced when I was in contact with them. The geladas do not know borders. They move as they want in search of food. The group advances as if they are one individual.
I wanted to share this collection of black and white art prints of animals with you because I have the greatest respect for this wildlife species. We can learn a lot from these geladas. I hope that my photographic and artistic vision will not leave you feeling indifferent, but that it might spark you interest in this special species.
For this collection of fine art prints in my theme "shades of blacks and whites", I wanted to explore the overwhelming feeling of smallness that we experience in the face of these grandiose and infinite landscapes.
I decided to focus on a theme of incomparable and unique landscapes for "Island in the Sky", located in the Canyonlands of Utah in the United States.
The Canyonlands are an American national park that is divided into three main parts.
For this collection of black and white art photographs, I chose the northernmost part of the Canyonlands to be the "Island in The Sky". The central part is "The Needles". The southernmost part is "The Maze".
The landscapes of "Island in the Sky" are characterized by strongly defined mineral formations, which appear to be sliced so that one may see the individual layers. This is made of pink sandstone. The Colorado and Green Rivers have eroded the colored rocks, forming the area's characteristic canyons. "Island in the Sky" appears to be suspended at 1,800 meters (5900 feet) above sea level. The two rivers meander 1,200 meters (3907 feet) below the plateau.
To contemplate the landscapes from the heights of the Canyonlands plateau is to become aware of what “immensity”, means in the broadest sense of the term. Contemplating the canyons makes us aware of our smallness on the earth.
Looking at the depth of the canyons, we can only humbly acknowledge our inferiority compared to the overwhelming power of natural elements. The elements of water, earth, air, and fire are capable of shaping nature on a grander scale then human beings could ever achieve.
Contemplating "Island in the Sky" from the heights allows the viewer to recognize the countless years of time that passed as the landscapes were slowly formed to become what is visible today. It truly is a rugged perspective of the desert. Vegetation is scarce due to the high altitude, which means that the few noticeable plants who do survive amongst the mineral formations are great accomplishments in themselves. We realized that it takes a long time to achieve such a beautifully wild sight.
Contemplating these artistic photographs makes us recognize that we must relearn the importance of taking time to build the foundations in our life. We must also understand that nothing is frozen forever. The erosion caused by strong winds, the cold of winter, and the heat of summer, will gradually transform these landscapes. In hundreds of years, the shape of the mineral structures will have changed. Although we remain the same person, times shapes us. Tomorrow, we will be different from ourselves today. We will have acquired new knowledge. We will be more empathetic and just. We will become better human beings. This is all I hope for myself.
Finally, these wonderful mineral landscapes of "Island in the Sky" in the Canyonlands are a life lesson for those who know how to look and appreciate. These fine art prints in black and white teach us that nothing is eternal, that everything is moving. We must never dwell on our own lot or circumstance. We must adapt, evolving to become even better.
This is the message that I would like to convey through this collection of black and white art prints dedicated to the natural wonders of “Island in the Sky” in the Canyonlands.
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